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Allergen Specific Treatment (AIT): A Breakthrough in Treating Cat Allergy

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  • Aug 06, 2021

Scientists see potential in high doses of a very specific adjuvant molecule named as CPG oligonucleotide, which is able to successfully inflect the immune system’s allergic response to the cat major allergen Fel d 1. Many researchers are now working on it. There is one more molecule which is responsible for the specific problem which is able to highly modulate the immune system allergic response to the cat’s major allergen and this allergy problem occurs in cat in many different ways. There were researchers from different department who are highly educated and are able to perform this study.

To investigate the cellular and clinical effects of an AIT (allergen specific immunotherapy) based on the injection of the Fel d 1 allergen in combination with a high dose of adjuvant CpG, the team challenged a mice allergic to Fel d 1 with the allergen in both the presence and absence of AIT. Scientists observed that AIT treated allergic mice showed significantly improved lung resistance compared to untreated allergic mice, similar to that of non-allergic control mice, with significantly reduced signs of airway inflammation and hypersensitivity. When examining the Fel d 1 -specific antibodies, the team found that allergic mice treated with AIT showed lower IgE levels, which are associated with allergic reactions, and higher IgA and IgG levels, which are associated anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, AIT treated allergic mice showed a reduction in the levels of certain pro-allergic cytokine molecules produced by type 2 (Th2) helper T cells compared to untreated allergic animals. Very shortly after the AIT injection, it was found that there was an increase in the tissues of the AIT-treated mice in the number of immune cell types involved in the regulation and tolerance of allergies, namely plasmacytoid dendritic cells, natural killer cells, regulatory T cells (T-regs) and regulatory B-cells (B-regs)  These cells were found to express higher levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) receptor 2 (TNFR-2), and natural killer cells also produce the cytokine TNF-α, which is known to play a role in allergen suppression. Specific immune response enables these regulatory cells to act as a "brake" on the immune system. At a later point in time, a significant increase in TNF-α in the lungs was observed. “Interestingly, the AIT has also triggered the emergence of a new and unique type of Tregs, the so-called biTregs, which are even better protected against the allergic reaction and inflammatory reaction to antigens” adds Dr. Léonard. Taken together, these results point towards the powerful anti-inflammatory properties and anti-allergic effects induced by AIT with a high and safe dose of adjuvant CpG.