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Feb, 22 2024

Next-Generation Targeted Therapy Against Cancer


  • Smoking and alcohol consumption are two of the biggest risks when it comes to developing cancer
  • Annual check-ups allow for the detection and diagnosis of cancer in its early stages
  • While conventional chemotherapy only offers a 30% probability of success, targeted therapy can be up to 80% effective.

Along with heart disease, cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the US. Conventional chemotherapy has always been the cornerstone of cancer care. Chemotherapeutic medications are made to target cells that divide quickly, such as cancer cells, as well as some normal cells, such the intestinal epithelium. A new generation of cancer medicines, known as targeted cancer therapies, has emerged in recent years. Targeted cancer therapies, such as traditional chemotherapy, employ pharmacological drugs that prevent growth, boost cell death, and limit the spread of cancer. Targeted therapies, as their name implies, prevent particular proteins implicated in cancer from doing their jobs. For many cancer types, including lung, colorectal, breast, lymphoma, and leukemia, targeted cancer therapies may be more therapeutically helpful than broad-based cancer treatments because they concentrate on specific molecular changes specific to a particular malignancy. In addition, new developments have made it possible to assess patient tumors and customize therapies accordingly.

Unfortunately, because cancer cells have been present in the human body since birth, people and cancer are inseparable bedfellows. It entirely depends on when those cancer cells start to mutate and how our bodies handle the subsequent alterations as to whether or not they pose a threat. Cellular abnormalities specifically change in our genes and genetic makeup, cause cancer. Cancer cells can arise at any time, but if the cellular alterations are slight, the white blood cells in the body will be able to recognize and get rid of them. The person won't get cancer if this happens. Some individuals, however, may have a variety of cellular anomalies simultaneously, enabling the cancer cells to become powerful enough to resist or elude the white blood cells. These cancerous cells continue to grow and multiply until they either take the shape of a tumor or become what is known as cancer.

All That You Need to Know About Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapy is one of a kind of cancer treatment. Drugs are used to specifically target the genes and proteins that support the growth and survival of cancer cells. The tissue environment in which cancer cells thrive can be changed by targeted therapy, or it can focus on cells like blood vessel cells that are associated with cancer growth. Many different forms of cancer can be treated using targeted therapy. Additionally, it can be used in conjunction with other cancer therapies like chemotherapy.

Although not all cancers can now be treated with targeted therapies, this field of study is expanding quickly, and numerous new targeted therapies are being tested in clinical studies. It serves as the basis for precision medicine. Researchers can better develop cancer treatments targeting these proteins as they gain knowledge about the DNA alterations and proteins that fuel cancer. Monoclonal antibodies or small-molecule medications make up the majority of targeted therapy.

  • Small-Molecule Medications are employed for targets inside of cells because they can easily enter cells due to their size. Small-molecule medications are capable of preventing the growth and spread of cancer cells. Inhibitors of angiogenesis are an illustration of this kind of tailored treatment. The process of angiogenesis is how new blood vessels are created. Blood vessels are necessary to deliver nourishment to tumors. Inhibitors of angiogenesis starve the tumor by preventing the growth of new blood vessels in the tissue surrounding it.
  • Therapeutic antibodies are another name for the laboratory-made proteins known as Monoclonal Antibodies. These proteins have been created to bind to particular sites on cancer cells. Some monoclonal antibodies identify cancer cells so that the immune system can more easily identify and eliminate them. Other monoclonal antibodies directly inhibit the growth of cancer cells or trigger their destruction. Others deliver poisons to cancer cells. Monoclonal antibodies are medications that stop a particular target on the surface of cancer cells. The region surrounding the cancer cells may potentially be the focus. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can deliver cytotoxic agents to cancer cells. For instance, chemotherapy and radiation therapy can facilitate improved cancer cell penetration. While not all monoclonal antibodies are regarded as an immunotherapy, some are.

Small molecule targeted cancer therapy market is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2021 to 2028. Data Bridge Market Research analyses the market to account to USD 2,019.19 million by 2028 growing at a CAGR of 6.43% in the above-mentioned forecast period. The growing awareness amongst the physicians and patients regarding the benefits of small molecule targeted cancer therapy will create various opportunities for market growth. High operational cost and rising rate of approved chemical drugs will likely act as market restraints factor for the growth of the small molecule targeted cancer therapy in the above mentioned timeframe.

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Who is Treated Using Targeted Therapy?

The various body sections are composed of a wide variety of cell types. Blood, brain, and skin cells are a few examples of cells. Every type has a specific job. Several genes that are normally found in healthy cells alter and become aberrant to cause cancer. The term "genetic mutation" or "alteration" refers to this transformation. Genes instruct cells on how to produce proteins that keep them functioning. These proteins alter when the genes do. Cells may divide too often or too quickly as a result of this. The cells live far longer than they would otherwise when this occurs. A tumor develops when these cells proliferate out of control. Find out more about cancer's genetics.

Researchers are working to pinpoint the precise genetic alterations that support a tumor's growth and evolution in order to provide tailored therapeutics. An ideal target for this type of therapy would be a protein that is present in cancer cells but not healthy cells; this is referred to as the drug's "target." Once a target has been established, researchers create a pharmacological therapy to attack it. Targeted therapies have a variety of effects on the cancer cells they aim to treat:

  • Turn off or block the signals that instruct cancer cells to divide and grow
  • Stop the cells from surviving longer than they should
  • Kill cancerous cells

Your doctor may request testing to identify the genes, proteins, and other components specific to the cancer you have in order to choose the best-targeted therapy. This aids in determining the best course of treatment. Targeted therapies can have side effects, just like other treatments, so it's crucial that your doctor chooses the appropriate treatment and dosage for your tumor. Based on a variety of variables, including body weight and your risk of experiencing serious side effects, the recommended dose of targeted therapy is determined. Ask your medical staff why they suggest a particular dosage.

How does Targeted Therapy Work Against Cancer?

Most forms of targeted therapy work to cure cancer by preventing certain proteins from assisting tumors in growing and dispersing throughout the body. Contrast this with chemotherapy, which frequently kills all rapidly dividing cells. The various ways that targeted treatment treats cancer are described here.

Next-generation targeted therapy against cancer

Fig.1: Benefits of Targeted Therapy Against Cancer

  • Help the Immune System Eliminate Cancerous Cells- One reason cancer cells proliferate is their ability to evade your immune system. In order to make it simpler for the immune system to locate and eliminate cancer cells, some targeted medicines can identify cancer cells. Other targeted medicines give your immune system a boost so that it can fight cancer more effectively.
  • Prohibit the Cancer Cells of the Hormones it Requires to Thrive- Some prostate and breast cancers need specific hormones to develop. One sort of targeted therapy that has two possible outcomes is hormone therapy. Certain hormone therapies stop your body from producing certain hormones. Cancer cells are among those that stop the hormones from working on your cells.
  • Kill Cancerous Cells- When damaged or no longer required, healthy cells pass away in a controlled manner. However, cancer cells are capable of escaping this process of death. Apoptosis, a process of cell death that causes cancer cells to die, can be induced by some targeted medicines.
  • Prevention by Stopping Cancer Spread- By blocking the signals that allow cancer cells to divide and expand out of control, cancer cells can be prevented from spreading. Your body's healthy cells typically only divide to create new cells in response to strong signals. The cells are instructed to divide by these signals, which bind to proteins on the cell surface. When your body need new cells, this procedure aids in their formation. However, some cancer cells contain modifications to the proteins on their surface that instruct them to divide regardless of the presence of signals. By interfering with these proteins, certain targeted medicines stop the cells from receiving the signal to divide. This procedure slows the unchecked growth of cancer.
  • Deliver Cancer Cells with Chemicals that Kill Cells- Certain monoclonal antibodies are mixed with agents that can destroy cells, such as poisons, chemotherapeutic medications, or radiation. These monoclonal antibodies bind to specific locations on the surface of cancer cells, whereupon the cells absorb the cell-killing agents and perish. Without the target, cells won't suffer any damage.

Data Bridge Market Research analyses a growth rate in the global targeted cancer drugs market in the forecast period 2022-2029. The expected CAGR of global targeted cancer drugs market is tend to be around 2.50% in the mentioned forecast period. The market was valued at USD 68 billion in 2021, and it would grow up to USD 82.85 billion by 2029. The global targeted cancer drugs market is segmented on the basis of type, route of administration, distribution channel and end-user.

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Drawbacks and Side Effects of Targeted Therapy

When targeted therapy was initially discovered, researchers believed it would be less harmful than chemotherapy. However, they have discovered that focused therapy can also have negative side effects. The body's response to the targeted therapy you receive and its nature will determine any adverse effects you experience. Diarrhea and liver issues are two of targeted therapy's most frequent side effects. Added negative impacts could include issues with wound healing and blood clotting, high blood pressure, fatigue, oral sores, loss of color in the hair, difficulties with the skin, such as rashes or dry skin and much more. The walls of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, or gallbladder can in some cases develop holes. However, these side effects go away when the treatment for cancer ends. Targeted therapy is not without its flaws. The two major are discussed below:

  • Targeted therapy can cause cancer cells to grow resistant. Resistance may result when the target itself changes and the targeted therapy cannot interact with it. It may also occur when cancer cells discover brand-new, independent ways to proliferate. Due to resistance, targeted therapy may be most effective when combined with other cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation or with other targeted therapies.
  • Drug development can be challenging for some targets. One or both of the target's structure or function within the cell may be the cause.

The global next generation sequencing (NGS) market is expected to gain market growth in the forecast period of 2022 to 2029. Data Bridge Market Research analyses that the market is growing with a CAGR of 17.1% in the forecast period of 2022 to 2029 and is expected to reach USD 29,307.13 million by 2029. Major factors driving the growth of global next generation sequencing (NGS) market are use of next generation sequencing in drug development and wide portfolio offered by major player and the factor which hampers the growth of the next generation sequencing (NGS) market includes high cost of next generation sequencing products and product recall.

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