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The Economic Challenges Created By Covid-19

  • 21 days ago | Agriculture And Animal Feed

    COVID-19 Impact on Latin America Plant Breeding and Crispr Plant Market in Agriculture IndustryCOVID-19 pandemic has affected the Latin America plant breeding & CRISPR plants market significantly on a global level. The persistence of COVID-19 for a longer period has affected the supply and demand chain as it got disrupted and it got hard to supply the plant breeding agricultural products. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Latin America countries are expecting a decline in the plant breeding & CRISPR plants market initially due to restriction on movements, de-globalization, loss of farmer’s income, restriction on import and export, restriction in the supply of agricultural products, all these factors have impacted the market growth negatively. The COVID-19 has led to the lockdown all around the world which has impacted the plant breeding & CRISPR plants market tremendously as the supply of agricultural products such as new variety seeds in the Latin America region has affected due to which the crop production, agricultural product sales, supply, and trade has faced a crisis. During the COVID-19 outbreak, the farmers of Latin America has faced a lot of losses in their crop production as there was a restriction on movements and also it was hard for them to collect agricultural products from the farmers. Therefore, farmers in Latin America are looking out for products that offer high yield and a wide range of resistance to climate, disease, herbicides, and others to cover up for their losses.After the outbreak of COVID-19, the farmers in Latin America are looking out for products which offer higher yield so that they can fulfil the growing demand of the population as well as cover-up for their losses. Also with the growing population of Latin America and with the ongoing COVD-19 outbreak, farmers are looking out for the variety which possesses the desired traits so that they can fulfil the growing demand which will thrive the market for plant breeding & CRISPR plants. Increase in awareness regarding the use of plant breeding & CRISPR technique to produce new variety plant which can produce higher yield crops with better quality and offer a wide range of resistance from herbicides, disease, and climate will drive the Latin America plant breeding & CRISPR plants market. Initially, the demand and supply of new variety agricultural products have decreased due to the movement restrictions, loss of labour but later after the COVID-19 outbreak the demand for crops produced from plant breeding & CRISPR technique is rising owning to increase in demand of high yield crop among farmers.COVID-19 OUTBREAK LEADS TO THE REDUCTION OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN OF PLANT BREEDING & CRISPR PLANTS MARKET The COVID-19 crisis has majorly affected the plant breeding & CRISPR plants market and its supply chain in the Latin America region. Due to the persistence of the COVID-19, a lockdown situation happened all around the world which has disturbed the supply chain of the agricultural products production of the crop, trading of the crop, transportation and others due to which market has faced a major crisis due to this. Due to restriction in the movements, it was difficult for the manufacturers to distribute their plant breeding agricultural products to the farmer and it also made it difficult for the farmers in crop production as the movement was prohibited and there was no supply for agricultural products. Also, the restriction in trading, supplying of products across the countries or even within the countries hit the supply of global manufacturers such as BAYER AG, Syngenta and others, as during the COVID-19 outbreak restriction movement made it hard for them to supply their products in Latin America market. Also due to restrictions on import and export, the plant breeding & CRISPR plants products are hard to sell across the countries and even across the Latin American countries which have eventually affected the growth of the Latin America plant breeding & CRISPR plants market. Also with the COVID-19 outbreak, the demand for plant breeding & CRISPR plants products has decreased initially due to lack of awareness, restriction on the trading process, loss of labour, farmer’s employment and farmer’s income which has affected the market initially.GROWING AWARENESS REGARDING THE USE OF PLANT BREEDING & CRISPR PLANTS AND THE RISING ADOPTION RATE FOR NEW VARIETY CROPS IS DRIVING THE MARKETWith the growing awareness regarding the benefits of using breeding technology & CRISPR technique to produce high yield crop with better nutritional quality, which offers disease resistance and herbicide tolerance traits, the demand for new variety crops is increasing. Also, farmers are opting for a new variety of crops produced from breeding methods & CRISPR technique as they faced a lot of loss in productivity during the COVID-19 outbreak as there was a restriction on the movements and were unable to produce new crops. Therefore, after the uplifting of transportation restriction after the COVID-19, the farmers would look for the products which help to fill up the losses of their productivity and help them gain more profit. The demand for new variety crops has suddenly increased after the COVID-19 outbreak for sustainable crop production and to produce a much higher yield crop. Also, the rise in the adoption rate of new variety crop produced by plant breeding technique among Latin American consumers is the main factor driving the market.For instance,In 2017, According to ISAAA, Brazil is the second-largest producer of biotech crops in the world and has an average adoption rate of 94% for biotech maize, cotton and soybean.Also, the manufacturers are investing more in producing new variety crops in the Latin America region which will drive the market in a positive direction.For instance,KWS SAAT SE & Co. KGaA has invested Euro 10 million at Patos de Minas, Brazil to increase the production capacity of corn from 900,000 to two million units.An increase in the adoption rate and increased investment for increasing the production of new variety crops to fulfill the growing demand for food with better nutrition in Latin America will drive market growth positively.MANUFACTURER’S PERSPECTIVEThe potential of gene editing, especially the CRISPR technique to improve the crop, is adopted by many companies to address the agricultural problem and “We can identify a handful [of companies] currently, but in the future that number will rise, perhaps even triple,” says Matt Crisp, CEO of Benson Hill in February 2019.“ToBRFV can quickly devastate tomato crops, so Bayer worked to develop a product to help growers combat it,” said JD Rossouw, Head of Bayer’s Vegetable Seeds R&D, in September 2020. “Bayer leveraged our global cross-functional teams and extensive research and development pipeline to offer a solution designed to ease the day-to-day challenges faced by growers. Our research continues across several tomato species to bring further innovative resistance to growers as quickly as possible.”“We are introducing the Brevant brand for farmers who prefer the service and local expertise that retail brings to their farm,” says Mike Lozier, marketing leader for Brevant in May 2020. “With Brevant, both retailers and farmers have the freedom to choose a new brand without compromising what’s most important to them. We’re committed to collaborating with farmers’ local retail teams to ensure their farm is always ready for what’s next.”Under its corn breeding program, KWS will further expand its seed portfolio in Brazil with a large variety of high-performance hybrids in the coming years: “KWS’ breeding program is quickly picking up speed, and we plan to launch many new corn hybrids over the next few years. Our breeding progress and our sales figures make us confident that we’ll become a leading provider of corn seed in Brazil in the medium to long term,” noted Alexander Drotschmann, Head of Business Unit Corn & Oilcrops Americas in July 2019.CONCLUSIONThe COVID-19 pandemic has affected almost all industries including the plant breeding & CRISPR plants market. Also, the COVID-19 outbreak has affected the population and economy on a global level. During this pandemic, the farmers have a lot of loss in crop production due to restrictions on the movement, which is increasing the demand of new variety crops that offer a high yield to cover up for their losses. The majority of the Latin American farmers are also getting aware of the benefits offered by the new variety crops produced from plant breeding & CRISPR plants technique. An increase in the number of programmes to educate the consumers and farmers about the benefits of using plant breeding & CRISPR plants in Latin America and raised investments for new variety crop by Latin American manufacturer will drive the plant breeding & CRISPR plants market in a positive direction. Increasing demand for new variety crops to increase the yield with better quality crops and offer a wide range of resistance against the herbicides, disease, or climate will add to the market's growth. Thus, the Latin American plant breeding & CRISPR plants market will be increasing after the COVID-19 outbreak and will grow for the long period due to the increasing demand for higher yield crop to cover up their losses after the upliftment of the transportation.

  • 21 days ago | Semiconductors and Electronics

    COVID-19 Impact on the Global Tolling System Market in Semicon IndustryANALYSIS ON IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE MARKET The pandemic originated from China, marking its beginning in 2019, and has been continuously spreading by then to all over the world, so far 218 countries and territories, and 2 international conveyances have been affected with COVID-19, the U.S. being on the top with cases reaching to about 31.5 million, followed by India, Brazil and then by many European countries such as Russia, France, Italy, and others. The COVID-19 cases reaching to the big named countries with strong dominance in the global market which has adversely affected the economy globally. The spread of the Coronavirus has led to the global recession, many companies are being bound to take stringent actions of laying off their employees, small businesses are being shut, and manufacturing facilities are being put on hold. There has been a disruption in the supply chain of many industries due to restrictions in logistics and the closing of manufacturing facilities. In addition, the slowdown in the economy has lowered the spending capability of individuals and people are saving money for emergencies.The World Bank stated that the global economy is expected to reduce by 5.2% in 2020. Emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) are expected to decrease by 2.5% and the economic activity in advanced economies may get reduced by 7% in 2020.The U.S. witnessed a decline of 4.8% on an annualized basis in the first quarter of Q1-2020. In addition, the slowdown in the economy has also lowered the spending capability of individuals and people are saving money for emergencies.The Latin American region is affected by COVID-19 in both human and economic terms. The IMF World Economic Outlook stated a decrease of 8.1% in the GDP of Latin America in 2020.Tolling system makes use of vehicle-to-toll plaza communication technologies that allow electronic payment of toll. The system enables a monetary transaction between a vehicle passing through a toll plaza and the toll collection agency. The tolling system is replacing the manual toll collection and making the passage of vehicles much faster thus reducing traffic congestion and enabling smooth flow of traffic. However, the recent pandemic has slowed the flow of traffic and there is a fall in the transportation of vehicles due to several lockdowns and work-from-home initiatives.IMPACT ON DEMAND AND SUPPLY CHAIN AND LONG TERM STRATEGY ADOPTED BY MANUFACTURERS OR STEPS TAKENCOVID-19 has brought in a diverse change in the trend of various industries and markets. The implementation of digitalization has boosted and companies are making digitalization their core strength. The social distancing norms have led to the development of some advanced technologies and so is the case with the tolling system. Vehicle owners prefer making cashless payments and the public-private partnership is aiding for the same purpose. Several authorities are taking initiatives to increase the number of the electronic tolling system.For instance,In July 2020, Florida’s Turnpike Enterprise and the State Road and Tollway Authority of Georgia (SRTA) joined the E-ZPass network. The new partnership will help in bringing interoperability to motorists traveling along the east coast soon. The pandemic has forced the companies to adopt several changes to their operations and companies require taking a strategic decision to sustain their development in this pandemic crisis. Certain companies delayed any sort of acquisitions and cut short the capital expenditure to maintain their financial conditions, in addition, they also need to align the sales projection with changing demand to limit their production and avoid any extra spending. Companies need to align their strategies with the changing market, they need to operate the facilities according to the present safety norms of government to bring the production back to pace. Companies need to innovate and develop technologies according to the changing trends of society.Companies are required to re-evaluate the business models and bring in several changes to be prepared for any such situation. The companies need to include more direct-to-customer shipping as part of the standard model. Also, the market players need to increase resilience by competing in growing market sectors.COVID-19 has led the companies on refocusing their short-term operational priorities and re-evaluate their demand forecasting. The pandemic has adversely affected all the industries with sales of automotive, electronics, and other products falling. The restriction on traveling, logistics, and closing of offices, schools, and major lockdowns reduced the traffic flow on the roads. This situation adversely affected the demand for tolling systems. For instance, Miami, New York, and Los Angeles are the most congested cities in the U.S. However, due to the pandemic, the traffic in each city dropped from 2019 levels by 26%, 30%, and 36% respectively.However, crashes, fatalities, and speeding increased proportionately to the number of drivers on the road. For instance, in April 2020, New York City reported 83,478 violations within eight days in March that even with such few people on the roads. A situation similar to this brings an opportunity to enhance the road infrastructure and install better and more advanced violation enforcement and tolling systems. The supply chain of tolling systems was adversely affected as several transportation and logistics movement were restricted. Several industries experienced a range of complications related to transportation due to country-to-country travel restrictions. However, the market players are trying to incorporate safety norms and working as per government regulations to maintain their supply chain. The pandemic impacted most industries including the highway sector. For instance, a company such as Clearview Intelligence Ltd stated that they struggled in the supply chain to service new orders in the short term. However, the company is fully committed to serving the ongoing contracts and customers.CONCLUSION As the COVID-19 prevailed the initial period saw a disruption in both supply and demand of the tolling system market. Several restrictions were imposed on transportation thus impacting the market adversely. However, the tolling system market will see a gradual increase in its growth due to several changing trends in the market such as increasing growth in automotive vehicles and growth in connected cars. The increasing investments to build smart cities will lead to higher demand for tolling system products, solutions, and services. The urban cities are now being upgraded with more advanced technologies for law enforcement and post-COVID days are likely to see more development in urban cities and advanced technologies.

  • 21 days ago | Chemical and Materials

    COVID-19 Impact on Roofing Market in Chemical and Materials IndustryRoofing is an integral part of the building as the roof is the uppermost part of the building, which provides a structural covering to protect the building from weather. The structure of the roof depends upon the type of building. Roofing material is a type of hard material that has several properties due to which it is used in the manufacturing of roofs. Many of the traditional roof styles are metal roofs, elastomers & plastic roofs, tile roofs, concrete & clay tile roofs, among others.Several researchers have worked on the evolution of roofing products in the 1800’s as a by-product of making tar, and asphalt-impregnated felts for flat roofs. Such roofs were invented from the 1940’s to the late 1970’s as asphalt shingles products were comprised of organic cellulose fibers derived from recycled waste paper and wood fiber. Asphalt products are increasing in the current scenario as this material provides several properties such as strength and waterproofing, increasing its demand in the market. The demand for roofing has always been high from residential applications.In a building, the roof's design plays an important role as the roof should be strong enough to face the dynamic changes and other earthquakes, fire, snowstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes, which can result in damage to residential or commercial building. Different types of roofing are in the market, which can be applied according to the different regions' environmental conditions.With the proper roofing system, the problem of structure can be solved. The installation of the high-quality roofing material is less costly and has more advantages as roofing material is installed for long terms. The roof structure can be made from metal, wood, and other material. For making the roof waterproof, as the asphalt material is used, it does not allow the water to enter into the roofing composition. The asphalt material and products are more in demand in the roofing market as products are low-cost and have more advantages over other roofing materials.The roofing products are being used in several applications due to which products have to undergo dynamic temperatures and high UV rays. The roofing material used for residential purposes covers all the roof space and gives protection and strength to the building from hailstorms and UV rays, which increases the building's life.In the roofing market, several types of products are available and used by different end-users in different applications. High-quality roofing is used for industrial purposes for sound reduction and sound absorption. Some roofing products are:Asphalt Shingles: An asphalt shingle is a type of wall or roof shingle that has asphalt for providing the waterproofing property to the shingles. Asphalt shingle is made from fiberglass or felt paper base coated with a waterproof later of asphalt and topped with ceramic granules.Metal Roofing: Metal roofing has often been called the “Cadillac of Roofing.” Metal roofing is a type of roofing which are made from small pieces of metal tiles. Metal roofing has steel, aluminum, zinc, or copper material in roofing products.Standing Seam Roofing: Standing seam roofing is a type of a concealed fastener roofing system that has panels vertically up the length of the roof and seams to connect one panel to another to make the full roof.Steep Slope Roofing: Steep slope roofing is kind of those roofs that are greater than 18 degrees. A steep roof generally is better for areas that have more snowfalls.Low Slope Roofing: Low slope roofing is a type of roofing which have a very slight slope on the surface to drain the water. The low slope roof has a slope of less than 3-in-12.Plain Panels: The plain panels are made from different materials and used to cover roofing.Tiles, Shingles, and Shakes: Shingles and shakes are the types of wood tiles that are either split or sawn from blocks of unseasoned timber laid on overlapping layers on a sloping roof.Welded Seam Roofing: In welded seam roofing, a single-ply membrane is usually mechanically attached using screws or other fasteners, and then a heat-welded ply is being attached along with the seams.Corrugated Sheet Roofing: The corrugated sheet roofing includes different kinds of sheets combined with the hot-dip galvanized mild steel and other material, which increases the strength across smaller surface areas.Wood: Wood is a hard fibrous material that forms the trunk's primary substance or branches of a tree or shrub.Green Roof: Green roof means a partly or fully covered roof with plants and a rising medium planted over a waterproofing membrane or a roofing surface.V-Beam Roofing: V-beam roofing is commonly used for industrial warehouses and buildings requiring cryogenic/temperature control.Solar Roofing: Solar roofing is that roofing that absorbs the sunlight and converts it into solar energy. Emissions.IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON ROOFING MARKETCovid-19 has adversely affected the demand for the roofing market in the construction sector. With the increasing number of COVID-19 cases, the demand for construction products has declined, but on the other hand, the demand for daily use products and essential goods increases. Several companies engaged in roofing manufacturing have faced several challenges towards the sale of roofing material products.Several consumers upgrade their residences to make them more functional by adding (home) office spaces and gyms. However, the demand for renovation has declined, which lowers the demand for roofing products. The government has done shutdowns in construction industries, leading to lower demand for roofing in the global market. COVID-19 has downgraded the demand in the construction sector, leading to low manufacturing of roofing products resulting in stagger growth of the manufactures in coming years.For instance,•          National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA) shows that the majority (52%) of roofing contractors said the coronavirus-fueled economic shutdown has already had a significant effect on their businesses.After a bleak of 2019, roofing production witnessed a decline due to the construction industry's low demand. The impact of COVID-19 was seen in January when several manufacturers in the U.S. faced a business problem due to a shortage of raw material imported from other countries. As during the COVID-19, the demand for the construction material has declined, due to which the production of the roofing products has reduced.Roofing has importance in the construction industry. However, due to increasing COVID-19 effects globally, the construction and real estate industry's growth has declined, and the manufactures of the roofing products are unable to clear up the stock.The impact of the virus on Chinese production has been devastating for global roofing markets and construction supply chains. The roofing industry's most drastic effects have been on the manufacture and supply of solar roofing systems, with production grinding to a halt in mainland China's most affected areas, where 60%-70% of the world’s solar roofing panels are manufactured. Solar roofing materials are likely to witness a decline in production due to the rapid spread of COVID-19, and production of aluminum, plastic, slate, timber, and rubber roofing products have all declined worldwide. The roofing market has to face several challenges during the COVID-19, which include a lack of workforce and transportation stoppages plaguing much of the Asia-Pacific region.With the increasing impact of COVID-19, the shortage of skilled workers can also be felt due to which construction of the roofing cannot be done, which has affected the global roofing market. During the pandemic, the government and other trade associations are trying to maintain the demand level and thus have taken various steps that make equilibrium in the demand and supply of the roofing in the market.IMPACT ON RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRYCOVID-19 has brought prolonged disruptions and uncertainty in the construction industry, which has put the sector under pressure and resulted in the sector's slow growth and standstill. Manufactures of the building and construction material will not be able to invest money in the business due to the lower demand in the future, making it difficult to demand furcating. With increasing government regulations for the countries' lockdown, the closure of the government undertakings, colleges, schools, hospitals, and several other government undertakings due to the demand for infrastructure development did not arise, leading to lower demand construction activities by the government.Large projects are running delay due to the lower availability of workforce in the countries due to which manufactures have to face cost escalation and heavy penalties in further project delays. The workforce in the construction industry has a voluntary step back to construction to stop the increasing spread of Coronavirus. With the slowdown in commercial construction, the demand for roofing products has declined.The spread of Coronavirus, which was originated in China, has started impacting ongoing construction projects. With the increasing number of COVID cases in the different countries, engineers and workers are not reporting at the construction sites. But, in the construction industry, more workforces are essential to complete the construction project in a given time. COVID-19 has resulted in a halt in the construction industry as due to the lockdown, most of the construction sites are running at half of our usual working run rate due to the increasing fear about the coronavirus infection in engineers and workers, which resulted in attendance at less than 70%.The construction industry has resulted in massive layoffs as, due to huge loss, most of the projects handled by private companies will take time to complete. Most projects in New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Washington states of the U.S. have come to a halt due to increasing coronavirus cases in the countries. At the local level, work stoppage directives have been mixed.For instance,In May 2020, the construction activities in Europe had been rising by 21.2% compared with the month of April, but as compared to the previous year, the number were fallen by 10.3%.In March 2020, Boston state shut down all construction sites and other areas in Massachusetts due to increasing suit of construction delays.In European countries, most of the companies re-started their construction work and started taking new projects, due to which the construction activity increases at the rate of 27.9% after the pandemic period.In May 2020, 38% of construction project owners halted projects underway in March, which also resulted in the 10% canceling projects altogether.IMPACT ON THE PRICE OF RAW MATERIAL OF ROOFINGFluctuation in the raw materials price will affect the production cost of the roofing products. The change in the production cost will change the revenue for the manufacturers. Modified bitumen and metal material are more used in the roofing sheet production, which are used on the outer layer of the building roof surface.The raw material is available in different quality and at a different rate due to which production of the roofing sheets of different length is very difficult for the manufacturers. Highly fluctuating raw materials costs and ineffective price management can greatly endanger manufacture in the market during COVID-19. Due to the fluctuation in the raw material prices, manufacturers cannot fix the product cost, which further resulted in a loss to manufactures.  FIGURE 1    BITUMEN OR ASPHALT PRICE FROM (NOVEMBER 2019 – APRIL 2020) (CNY/T)From the above diagram, we can infer the fluctuation in the bitumen or asphalt price, which is highly used as the raw material in the production of asphalt shingles that are used as the roofing product in commercial and residential construction.In November 2019, the asphalt price was 3,023.18 (CNY/T), which increases to 3,163.53 (CNY/T) to December 2020In January 2020, the price fall to 3,008.15(CNY/T), in February 2020 price fall to 2, 8882.83 (CNY/T), in March 2020 price fall to 1861.51 (CNY/T), and in April 2020 gain the price fall to 1,784.21 (CNY/T)With the increasing spread of the COVID-19 in the country, the import and export of the raw material have become difficult due to which the fluctuation in the prices of raw material can be seen, which affects the manufacturing growth.CONCLUSIONThe COVID-19 crisis has created a pandemic situation widely, which affected construction activities worldwide. The government imposed lockdown rules for all the construction activity and sites, leading to a halt of the roofing product's demand, resulting in manufacturers the massive loss of profit and will show steady growth in the coming years. Most of the skilled roofing laborers already headed to their homes or villages and they are not willing to return and resume their construction work again, which causes the shortage of skilled laborers in urban areas due to which large projects are running out of time which lowers the demand for roofing products during COVID-19. The decline in renovation in the developing nation has affected roofing to a larger extent during COVID-19.The halt's impact on work has increased the direct bearing of losses on the company revenue, jobs, and project delays. The government has also taken many steps to uplift the roofing industry as many funds have been opened for the workers and the manufacturers, which will increase the demand for roofing products in the construction industry. The government has also initiated construction projects, which will increase the employment generation in all the regions. The increase in government initiatives and increased workforce in the industry will help increase market growth in the future.

  • 21 days ago |

    COVID-19 Impact on the Global Cholangitis Market in Pharma IndustryThe COVID-19 pandemic has posed a complex challenge in front of several healthcare companies and proved to be an unprecedented global health threat. This global pandemic has emerged in December 2019 which has been proved as a global pandemic by WHO in March 2020.  With the development and introduction of novel coronavirus vaccine, COVID cases have been declined but with the development of mutant coronavirus strain, the overall COVID cases have been surged and are increasing at a rapid rate in India, U.K, and other European countries.The most common symptoms associated with this include cough, fever, diarrhea, sore throat, and loss of smell or taste. Patients affected with COVID-19 are at increased risk of developing hepatic manifestations and also experiences damage to liver tissues.As per the studies conducted this has been reported that the prevalence of chronic liver disease in COVID-19 patients ranges from 2% to 11%. The hepatic involvement in COVID-19 infection can be related to the direct cytopathic effect of the virus, sepsis or drug-induced liver injury, and an uncontrolled immune response. This has been proved that cholangiocytes express the high level of ACE2 receptors which are the target receptor of SARS-CoV2 that in turn worsen the hepatic decompensation and increases the overall mortality rates.Cholangitis Cholangitis is indicated as an infection of the common bile duct of the individual. This is caused due to bacterial infection and chronic infection leads to mortality and mortality.  The most common symptom associated with it includes low blood pressure, jaundice, abdominal pain and fever among others. Cholangitis can be treated using antibiotics including ceftriaxone, penicillin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin among others.  Moreover, intravenous fluid and bile duct drainage are other alternative treatments indicated for cholangitis treatment. This has also been projected that ursodeoxycholic acid which allows liver protection can also be used for cholangitis management.As the hepatic manifestations are more common with COVID 19 infections, the increasing COVID-19 cases have posed complex challenges in front of patients suffering from cholangitis among others.IMPACT ON PRICEAs cholangitis is a bacterial infection the most commonly prescribed drug indicated for its treatment includes antibiotics. With the sudden increase in COVID 19 cases, the people's concerns for their better health have also increased. Majorly patients suffering from respiratory illness infections including pneumonia among others are at higher risk of developing COVID-19 infections hence have started to take proper precautions to lead a healthy life.As India relies on China for 70% of drug intermediates and bulk drugs, COVID -19 is expected to hike the price of the medicines used for Cholangitis.For instance,Penicillin, an antibiotic indicated for cholangitis treatment has become 40 percent costlier within a month due to an increase in the cost of penicillin API to USD 8.69 per unit during the year 2020.As per the report of September 2020, this has been projected that as India is largely dependent upon China for APIs used for drug production, the country has raised the overall drug prices. The prices of common antibiotics including paracetamol, ciprofloxacin among others have been shot up.Table 1:  Price Hike of Antibiotics indicated for Cholangitis Treatment during the COVID-19 Pandemic Across U.KDrugsUnitsPricePrice Hike (2019/2020)Price Hike (2020/2021)Metronidazole 250mg Tablets100017,1005070Ciprofloxacin 50 mg Tablets10010,5007070Ceftriaxone 1g vials11,70060005000This thus signifies that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased demand for few antibiotics which has enhanced the overall cost of antibiotics.IMPACT ON DEMANDThe coronavirus has affected the various regions of the world and caused the widespread closure of companies and local manufacturing plants. This lockdown and isolation have adversely impacted global economic activity.COVID-19 is expected to be an opportunity for the cholangitis market, as the rising COVID-19 cases are responsible for inducing cholangitis cases.THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 INFECTION ON CHOLANGITIS PATIENTSAs per the several studies conducted till now, liver injury is a more common problem associated with COVID-19.For instance,According to a report published in May 2020, this has been reported that COVID-19 patients usually have a high level of ACE2 receptor expression which complicates the cholangitis case and results in an increased level of cholestasis.As per the publication of December 2020, COVID-19 has resulted in increased hospitalization rates with the rising demand for medications to treat the most complicated infectious disease including cholangitis among others. Moreover, as India relies heavily on China for the supply of main APIs, a slow-down production of these finished pharmaceutical products has also impacted the manufacturing of antibiotics.Moreover, antibiotics are the major treatment options indicated for cholangitis treatment and antibiotics use has been increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.For instance,As per the report published in August 2020, this has been reported that antibiotic usage has been increased by 84% in some hospitals. Moreover, the news suggested that 56.6% of patients receiving antibiotic therapy during the pandemic of COVID-19.In May 2020, Sandoz International GmbH had expanded its manufacturing capabilities to manage the dependable supply of medicines. The company has opened this manufacturing facility to boost up the production of antibiotics and respiratory medicines to fulfill the rising patient’s demands. Moreover, the company is boosting up the production of key antibiotics at a site in Kundli, Austria, and Romania to respond to the COVID-19 crisis.Recipharm AB has published a blog according to which the rising prevalence of COVID-19 has resulted in an increased demand for antibiotics which has led to a surge in the production of key antibiotics.  Moreover, the company stated that they have recently reported an increased demand for potent antibiotics including ampicillin, sulbactam, ceftriaxone among others, which shows that ceftriaxone is widely used for managing cholangitis is in higher demand.This suggests that the increasing prevalence of COVID-19 poses a life-threatening challenge and hence enhances the demand for cholangitis treatment options. This thus signifies that COVID-19 is accelerating the demand of the cholangitis market.IMPACT ON SUPPLY CHAIN The COVID-19 pandemic has affected and badly disrupted the global drug supply chain due to the continuous shut down of manufacturing facilities and restrictions imposed by the government over import and export activities. Due to a wide shut down of manufacturing facilities, antibiotics manufacturing has been badly affected. This has been reported that as of June 2020 10.5% of all drugs which have been reported with shortage are antibiotics.As per the FDA, the shortage in antibiotics is majorly due to quality issues associated with manufacturing facilities.Due to the pertinacious COVID-19 lockdown, sanctions have been imposed by governments of various countries. These restrictions and barriers across countries' borders led to a decrease in the supply of APIs needed for drug manufacturing and raw materials required for the manufacturing of devices including insulin pumps. Lack of updates to routine operations maintaining the antibiotics manufacturing during the COVID-19 led to a shortage of high-quality antibiotics manufacturing and impacted the overall supply of these antibiotics including antibiotics indicated for treatment cholangitis.However to deal with the current scenario of antibiotics supply shortage FDA and the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) have issued guidelines to improve the quality controls and to boost up the productions.This, thus signifies that due to continuous lockdown and several restrictions by government authorities the companies and patients are facing disruption of the supply chain for antibiotics including antibiotics indicated for the treatment of cholangitis.STRATEGIC DECISIONS of MANUFACTURERSCollaboration, agreements, strategic initiatives by market players such as Pfizer Inc., Bayer AG,  Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd among others in the cholangitis market will help them to expand their product portfolio and to provide appropriate antibiotics among others to physicians and patients. This in turn will lead to increased product sales and hence will put a positive impact on the overall company’s revenue.Cholangitis treatment manufacturing companies are taking so many strategic decisions to cope up with the current scenario of COVID-19. The companies engaged in the manufacturing of cholangitis treatment drugs are adopting several initiatives to accelerate the development of antibiotic medicines and efficiently supply the drugs to different end-users.Companies have already taken several kinds of strategic initiatives to cope up with the coronavirus situation. For instance,In August 2020, Bayer AG collaborated with PSCI and TfS to establish new sustainability standards for maintaining the company’s supply base. Through this initiative, the company has boosted up product manufacturing and enhanced the pharmaceutical supply chain by improving the conditions of workers, and by providing them with a cleaner environment amid COVID-19.In June 2020, Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd acquired a division of Wockhardt generic business which comprises a portfolio of 62 brands including gastroenterology, dermatology, pain, vaccines among others. As the company’s sales have been reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic this acquisition boosted the company’s revenue.With the increasing demand and increasing sales of cholangitis medicines, governmental agencies are also investing in antibiotics development.For instance,In July 2020, WHO announced the launch of the AMR action fund which has been designed for antibiotic medicines development.  As per the fund launched new antibiotics are expected to launch by 2030. This action fund is a collaboration of major pharmaceutical companies which together adopted initiatives for the development of new treatments.In 2020, the Indian government has launched The Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for boosting up the production of critical key intermediates used for drug production including antibiotics indicated for cholangitis treatment among others. Thus, companies operating in the cholangitis market are adopting several strategies, including collaboration, agreements, acquisition, and market expansion to enhance their business. These strategic decisions by the companies are expected to provide significant opportunities for the market players operating in the cholangitis market.CONCLUSIONAs the pandemic of COVID-19 has resulted in several restrictions throughout the borders but still, manufacturers of antibiotics can manage their stocks. Various manufacturers have allowed their manufacturers to work in a clean and safe environment to boost up the production of antibiotics at various manufacturing facilities across several regions of the world helping them to maintain a continuous supply chain. However, the introduction of mutant corona strain has worsened the situation and affecting several industries worldwide which are compensated by raising the price of cholangitis treatment drugs. By raising the prices the companies are gaining extra profit which is helping them to combat the negative effect on overall revenue.

  • 21 days ago | Food & Beverage

    COVID-19 Impact on Global Pea Starch Market in Food and Beverages IndustryThe COVID-19 outbreak that started spreading from Wuhan, China, and became widespread across countries, has affected the livelihood of millions. Moreover, the pandemic has led to economic decline in various regions due to a lack of business activities. For Instance, according to World Bank, due to COVID-19, the global GDP will decline by 5%. Thus, the pandemic has laid out a drastic impact on all industries and sectors in the market, while hampering the supply and demand of the markets, such as the pea starch market.Due to this disrupted market, various sectors have seen major changes in the consumption behavior of consumers. A change that stands out during these fickle times is the increased consumption of a variety of pea starch in various food products. The major reason for such changes among the consumers as well various food product manufacturers is that pea starch is considered to be more healthy in nature, as it is gluten and lactose-free.CONSUMERS WITH OBESITY AT HIGH RISK OF COVID-19Obesity is one of the diseases making the patients more vulnerable to the high risk of COVID-19. As though the years there have been an increase in the population with obesity and CVD, there will be a significant rise in COVID-19 cases.For instance,According to World Health Organization (WHO), in 2019, 38 million children under 5 years suffer from overweight or obesity.Prevalence of Obesity among Adults, BMI >= 30 (Age-Standardized Estimate) (%)Such instances have made consumers more aware of what they eat, as a larger intake of calories, fat, and carbohydrates results in an increased risk of cholesterol, which increases the risk of obesity and overweight. Due to which consumers as well as manufacturers have been more conscious regarding the calorie intake from the food, and have shifted their preference to healthy ingredients, such as pea starch. This is because, in comparison to other starchy ingredients, pea starch is gluten-free and lactose-free in nature. Furthermore, it contains less fat and is a rich source of amylose.INCREASED DEMAND FOR SPECIFIC FOOD PRODUCTS FOR SPECIAL DIETSAt the beginning of 2020, the pandemic has resulted in a drastic increase in the demand for food and food supplements that are healthy in nature. A popular trend in consumers is a shift to a various special diet which is considered healthy. Consumers on these special diets also seem to be at a lower risk of diabetes, cholesterol, obesity, and other diseases.  As COVID-19 is at high risk in patients with obesity, the consumption of healthy and vegetarian food ingredients such as pea starch has increased in consumers, as they have low calories, gluten-free, and lactose-free in nature.According to Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, as per the data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in 2015-2018, approximately 17.1% of people were on special diets in the US, which included weight loss or low calorie, low fat, or low cholesterol food and beverages food items.  Percentage of adults aged 20 and over on most common special diets on a given day, by age: United States, 2015–2018IMPACT ON SUPPLY CHAINThe restriction imposed during lockdown has changed the mind-set of the consumers and business enterprises towards the online shopping and e-commerce platform that has augmented the growth of the market. The partnership with online delivery platforms such as Alibaba, Indiamart, Amazon, Walmart, and others has also supported the supply chain of pea starch products in the global market. With social media and e-commerce providing a huge platform for major and minor baby food manufacturers, the consumers have been abled with ordering and pick-up at their convenience or get their order shipped at their locations. Few companies have also developed their e-commerce platforms that have benefitted their supply chain, which has overall enhanced the demand for pea starch.IMPACT ON DEMANDDuring this crisis time health has become an imperative issue for the consumer. From making smaller changes such as high nutrition and mineral food to major lifestyle changes such as organic and natural food, consumers have put health as a priority. As pea starch is well known for its nutritional benefits and vegan nature, the demand for pea starch products is expected to increase among the manufacturers as well the consumers, with COVID-19 and after COVID-19. Thus, few companies have been making various developments to meet the growing demand.For instance,In 2020, PURIS, a US-based company, has launched a new pea starch for manufacturing sports nutrition and gummy formulation.In 2020, Roquette, a France-based company, has launched a new pea starch technology, Lycagel, for the formulation of a vegetarian soft gel capsule.CONCLUSIONDue to the pandemic, the global economy has taken a hit, which has resulted in the major breakdown of various industries. This disruption has followed through sectors, such as pea starch, interfering with the supply chain and demand of the company. The economy with this major downfall can only be rebuilt by a combined effort of industry players, government, and consumers. The overall measures for the wellbeing of individuals have been incorporated, keeping in mind the isolation at home and by staying alert of the food and clinical supplies, especially for the underprivileged communities are being thoughtfully tracked by government across the country. Retaining and boosting immunity has become a major concern for consumers. For which consumers have been taken various precautions and actions to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Moreover, such trends and behavioural changes are expected to stick with the consumers even after the pandemic is over. Thus, it is expected that the overall market will grow furthermore after this global pandemic is over.                                                                                                 

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